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Friday, January 11, 2013

Learning disorders

Learning disorders has been studied from different perspectives trying to explain or solve the complications that have linked with learning at school, even though in general these disorders become notorious in formal education, they affect other environments, sometimes of lifetime.
This is the main topic of educational psychology and they have designed enough strategies to help to persons to be successful. However, do not always keep the advances obtained with learning strategies, either because the psychologist is no longer working with the child, schools change the teacher, school cycles, work strategies are changed and then the effects of psychological interventions are lost.
This learning effect, almost always diluted, in part, because just thinking about the what to teach and how to teach. It is very common to hear or read that learning problems are due to the mode of teaching, and it may be so in some cases, but in others, the effect of maintenance is lost by that trust in the memory and studies on the brain, are made of side so appealing to brain plasticity, as more permanent learning process is the proposal of this work.
From neuroscience point of view, cognitive processes can be analyze molecularly, step by step, which makes it fascinating to understand usual task as  reading or writing, but it makes them complex if they are  observed them from a  minimum expression, so it is very easy to get lost in the details and forget the problem of how children are learning and relating the environment.
However, the advantage of this position, is that it avoids falling into the error of talk about, for example, reading disorder as a kind of diagnosis, but it’s better to ask: what is the process?, Maybe the person has not learned the relationship between sounds and letter?, or can’t persons recognize the difference between a letters or sounds?, maybe  child can’t understand what does reading mean?, but it is always possible to detect the link that is causing a problem from  the process, observing the chains of events to every process.  Of course, each link in the chain of events is important, if the letters are not known it will not be possible to understand what you read, but does not mean that there is a brain damage, since the brain is always ready to learn other ways of approaching events.
One problem of traditional psychology is the fact they are looking for a diagnosis from  tasks that don't run as the majority of the population, however usually they forget very easily think about what the child can do, and their potential from its strengths, is the best model student-centered, as the students is their own connectome.
Thus the advantage of neurocognition is the fact of explaining from the higher mental processes from neural networks and biochemical processes, and their studies can be as sophisticated as analyze a molecule implicated in memory or understanding neural networks specific related in the pronunciation of a Word, but it has failed to be a real bridge between the biochemistry  of the brain and ideas, because there is a question still unanswered: when do the neural connections become subjective experience?. I hope that in the next 10 to 20 years is possible to respond to this, however, is the best bridge that exists so far to understand the higher mental processes.
It seems to me to determine the best way to learn, it is a completely personal aspect, and there are no magic formulas or generally applicable programs. Red color will be attractive for some while others will see it offensive. There will be those who need 2 seconds to understand a task, while some will never understand it, others will try to remember it only to approve the bimonthly test. Despite all research on the processes of learning, there is a curriculum that takes advantage of all that knowledge.
The understanding of the brain, allows moreover,  try to find better models of teaching and learning, appeal to the cerebral plasticity, seems to me is the best way to put aside the stigma you can't do this  and you never will be able to do it, you are not SMART. We all have specific disorders in some area, but what makes some successful is the ability to look for alternatives.
School learning is usually viewed as abilities or tasks that students must master as a requirement for academic success. From the classrooms, one of the jobs of the teacher is to help students to acquire learning and give them sense, ensuring a logical sequence of acquisition of knowledge.
However the child learns not only at school or books, because when children enter school, they know things. Some of them are evolutionary legacies that allow you to adapt better to the environment, language for example, which since the early days of born begins to develop, first by way of crying to provide food and company and later as a means of expression.
Those who promote them language and children shows them that language is a useful tool as a mean of communication, for example, will be more apt to develop a more comprehensive and with time vocabulary, will be children for whom reading and writing will be a logical step to the transmission of ideas.
On the other hand, when children are developed in a more challenging environment for the movement, as athletes, will generate more motor connections, because they will exercise them more extensively and probably set aside the words. I am pretty sure there is no need of explanations when you see a child to score his or her first goal or reach the goal first as the rest of the team?.
In this regard, it is worth mentioning that this vision is not black and white, children will develop brain connections that will manifest themselves in learning skills, whether in the areas of thought or language or motor activities depending on so much stimulation to provide the environment, at the same time how much these activities is seen as a necessity. In this category fall activities even though they are genetically programmed as language and arithmetic, not carried out because the environment does not promote them.
Example of this are the children that although they can speak and know the words to ask for their milk, parents do not require to use your vocabulary and it is only enough for the child point a cup and someone will translate the action: Yes, my dear: I know  you want your hot milk with chocolate and sugar in your red glass!. When parents can read children minds, there is not a possibility of exploring and developing their own words that if they were corrected, would eventually be expanded and would be presented in a logical order.
The previous example allows glimpse to learn must exist certain principles. On the one hand, there must be a brain capable of doing so, and it is known that in the early years the brain is a sponge suitable to acquire skills that allows you to adapt.
Secondly, there should be the need to learn, because otherwise, the brain will not endeavor by creating connections and this will take you to lose those who are not fit to stay or who are not employed. This principle of the struggle of the strongest and the fittest will be evident throughout the brain development. If a phone number is not in use more than once, do you remember it?.
Hence, there are two processes that become indispensable for learning, memory, which allows the system to create memories that is something useful from the stimulation of the medium, for example, you know to read these lines because it is a task that has carried out many times, first as a game and then systematizing the task until you reach the point not only of reading, but the reading comprehension. This is possible thanks to the loyal friend of memory: motivation.
When babies are born, their motivations are simple: eat, sleep, feel hugs from mom or caregivers. Little by little these basic, maybe selfish motivations change by the need to make happy the caregiver, developing the social function, and when that person smiles widely and asks him to smile baby, this responds, is that you among most happy is the person, the longer it will devote and your needs will be covered. Little by little this relationship will become more and more close to the point they will begin to share. If mom wants to respond in this way, the baby will do so. This will allow you to take the step needed to ask for things, like milk, or seek shelter when you feel cold and develop their social needs.
That will lead to the next point of learning what he or she wants, when he or she wants to, and there is clear the stage well known for the parents and educators in which the child learns by repetition, asking and making movements again and again and again and one more, to the extent they are able to repeat each of the dialogues of a film which you are already tired. Have you read any time something like that?.
So children before formal teaching, will learn what they like, what make him or her happy, what allows them to adapt to the rules of the household, from stimulation from the environment, repetition of activities and exploration, thus create a memory that allows them to sustain that neuronal connection and make it strong to make it possible to build other learning that eventually will become formal.
In conclusion, this perspective explains learning first how willing human needs for survival of the species, what would humanity if there is no transmission of knowledge?, from simple events like explain to others when a food is no longer edible, or spread the findings of neuroscience.
Apprenticeships require stimulation from the environment, able to create a need be employed in multiple tasks that generate regular neural connections that eventually become strong and thereby enable the development of increasingly complex skills, creating chains of steps, known as a process of learning, because each new skill is presented thanks to others that can be traced to birth.
Motivation that encourages repeated practice, which were already analyzed the benefits, but also allows find in the learner is also important a reason to continue learning and self-regulate their behavior determined by the praise you receive from others within the class environments, since it increases the likelihood that a behavior will repeat if it is pleasant or helpful anyway and  who doesn’t like to  demonstrate special abilities?.
Though this principle also suggests that there is only one way to learn, because the human brain as opposed to a computer that learns only what is programmed you, is capable of searching multiple responses to a single problem, in order to achieve satisfaction. This, however, goes against the traditional school, which sees learning as a reflection of a single answer, invariable e equal for all, leaving aside the student though in correct way, not responding as expected.
Learning when it is practiced and is based on motivation, enters the memory this process will allow to automate chains of response and thus to save steps for the achievement of goals. All learning at the beginning should be modeling i.e., others must show and explain how to do it, except those that are based on reflexes or vegetative needs such as breathing, swallowing, or flashing, and little by little are automated to do without thinking. The first time you saw letters someone told you that these signs were letters, with time, was able to make sense of the signs, and with the passage of years is now able to read and understand, thanks to a reduction in steps that used to give when you started reading, which is now practically automatic process.
If there was little memory, lets you store information, provided this is significant and apply more than once and preferably in more than one environment. So surely you already do not remember the name of the author of this article unless you know previous works. If not, the name is not relevant.
That being so, learning is more than loading books and fill flat, we all know that, but from a neurocognitive perspective, learning is a brain process, shared socially, because the brain requires stimulation of the environment and the social approval to decide if he has given the necessary answers and also, why not?, motivating!.
Alma Dzib Goodinesses molecularly, step by step, which makes it fascinating to understand as everyday as the reading or writing tasks, but it makes them complex when one observes them both carefully as you shred them up to the minimum expression, so it is very easy to get lost in the details and forget the problem that gave rise to such a search. Al
Alma Al

Eso lo conducirá al siguiente punto de aprender lo que quiere, cuando quiere, y de ahí se desprende la etapa bien conocida por los padres de familia y educadores en la cual el niño aprende con repetición, preguntando y haciendo movimientos una y otra vez y otra vez y una más, hasta el punto en que son capaces repetir cada uno de los diálogos de una película de la cual usted está ya harto.


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